National Guard State Partnership Program: FY2014 NDAA, P.L. 2382 (c). Combatant Commanders (CCDRs). FY2016 appropriations legislation (P.L. Many U.S. efforts over the years have not achieved desired results. Information copies of the supplements must be sent to DSCA (Strategy, Plans, and Policy Directorate (SPP)). As the item manager for consumable stock-funded secondary items, DLA supply centers work with the MILDEPs to fill requisitions, process Supply Discrepancy Reports (SDRs)), and close cases when supply is complete. Appropriations may also be requested to reimburse the DoD for the value of items furnished under Military Assistance Drawdown. 114-92, Section 1250. Original Legislation: FY2004 NDAA, P.L. Yes, requires consultation with the Secretary of State for agreements with NATO members, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, ROK, and NATO subsidiary bodies. 10 U.S.C. CN submitted 30 days prior to the intended eligibility designation of a non-NATO country. Title 10 U.S.C. Report due no later than 90 days after end of fiscal year in which authority is exercised. Whether DOD sufficiently factors social, cultural, political, and economic dynamics, and the character and organization of recipient military forces, into security cooperation planning and execution, and whether it draws appropriately on the knowledge and resources of the State Department, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and other U.S. agencies in assessing those conditions. Since military aid became a major component of U.S. foreign assistance to counter the rise of the Soviet Union after World War II, the State Department has historically exercised the lead in security assistance activities.5 Since 1961, Congress generally authorized military and other security assistance under Title 22 of the U.S. Code, funded it through the State Department budget, and charged the Secretary of State with responsibility to provide "continuous supervision and general direction" to ensure its coherence with foreign policy.6 With certain exceptions, security assistance was largely a secondary DOD mission. Activities permitted by the authority can only be carried out once a report, including a memorandum of agreement between the United States and Israel, has been submitted. 1051); Military-to-Military Contacts and Related (10 U.S.C. As a result, ascertaining the utility of individual security assistance and cooperation programs and comparing results can be problematic. DOD funds six Regional Centers for Security Studies, which provide a venue for instruction and discussion among foreign military and civilian defense officials on regional and global security challenges and strengthening defense institutions. Authority to be exercised in accordance with the Arms Export Control Act and other relevant export control laws, and with Section 516(c)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. Authorizes the temporary assignment and payment of certain expenses of a foreign military member to a DOD organization to participate in education and training opportunities to improve the member's ability to respond to security threats, vulnerabilities of information security systems, and the consequences of information security incidents. RAND, Assessing Security Cooperation as a Preventative Tool, 2014, p. xvi. Authorization or appropriations legislation does not specify funding levels for the following authorities: Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) (10 U.S.C. Permitted activities also include force training, contingencies, selected operations, command and control, joint exercises, military education and training for military and related civilian personnel of foreign countries, including transportation, translation, and administrative expenses (up to $5 million per year). Combined exercises and support for coalition forces are two of the missions that draw on multiple authorities, each with its own coordination processes and funding timelines, which may lead to delays and sometimes cancellations. A second would extend current 10 U.S.C. Briefing on use of authority no later than 90 days after end of each fiscal year. The term security assistance is a generic term used throughout the U.S. government to describe assistance provided to foreign military and security forces, regardless of the agency providing that assistance. C1.2.4.1. In 2005, Congress passed the first such global authority, frequently referred to as "Section 1206" (now 10 U.S.C. the degree to which DOD still relies on private contractors in its security cooperation programs, the roles they play, and the benefits and costs of their use. Preview Of Subsequent Chapters ... Manual (SAMM), DSCA 5105.38-M, particularly Chapter 16, Case Reconciliation and … The USD(AT&L) is the principal staff assistant and advisor to the Secretary of Defense for all matters relating to the DoD Acquisition System; research and development; production; logistics; command, control, communications, and intelligence activities related to acquisition; military construction; and procurement. All three reports above to SASC, SFRC, SAC, HASC, HFAC, HAC, Senate and House leadership. Original legislation: FY1981 Intelligence Authorization Act, P.L. 110-181, Section 1233, as amended. rapidly provide inexpensive, general-purpose military equipment, such as uniforms and other personal gear, small arms, ammunition, and common supplies and replacement parts. Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program: 10 U.S.C. 3 Scope This policy applies any established and defined business unity or entity within the . These include building capacity for operations to counter weapons of mass destruction, drugs, and transnational crime, and to conduct maritime and border security, military intelligence, humanitarian disaster assistance operations, and national territorial defense operations. SASC, HASC. Under Secretary of Defense, Comptroller (USD(C)). In addition, Congress has enacted authorities that permit DOD to use U.S. general purpose forces to train with foreign military or security forces of other countries and to pay incremental expenses incurred by foreign states participating in that training. Up to $10 million per year may be spent to sponsor the participation of foreign countries in joint exercises. DFAS also issues accounting procedures. 168; 10 U.S.C. DOD Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR): FY2015 NDAA, P.L. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to provide up to $715 million in assistance to Iraq and partner nations to defend against the Islamic State and its allies, which may include training, equipment, logistics support, supplies, services, stipends, facility and infrastructure repair and renovation, and sustainment. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to provide assistance to the security forces of Afghanistan, which may include provision of equipment, supplies, services, training, facility and infrastructure repair, renovation, and construction and funding. 100-456, Section 1104. For additional information on the terminology associated with security assistance and security cooperation, see, Security Assistance and Cooperation: Shared Responsibility of the Departments of State and Defense. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to establish the Center for Complex Operations to facilitate coordination among DOD personnel and other USG personnel for complex operations; to foster unity of effort among the U.S. government departments and agencies, foreign governments and militaries, international organizations and international nongovernmental organizations, and domestic nongovernmental organizations; to conduct research in matters relating to complex operations; and to identify and address gaps in the education and training of DOD and other USG personnel relating to complex operations. 87-195, Section 622(c) (22 U.S.C. 421. For additional information, see DISAM, The Management of Security Cooperation, July 2016. Original legislation: FY1998 NDAA, P.L. In the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), DOD stated that U.S. security is "inextricably tied to the effectiveness of our efforts to help partners and allies build their own security capacity. Response, by [author name scrubbed], [author name scrubbed], and [author name scrubbed]. These include the broad Military-to-Military Contacts and Comparable Activities authority for the Secretary of Defense to fund, with Secretary of State approval, a wide range of activities, including contact teams and military liaisons, exchanges of DOD and foreign defense ministry civilian and military personnel, personnel exchanges between U.S. and foreign military units, seminars, conferences, and specified related expenses. For more on DOD disaster relief and humanitarian assistance, see CRS Report RL33769, International Crises and Disasters: U.S. Humanitarian Assistance Response Mechanisms, by [author name scrubbed]. 2350d. Others authorize the creation and administration of institutes, leadership programs, fellowship programs, and academies for military personnel of friendly foreign states. Amounts appropriated will remain available for obligation through September, 30, 2016. DCMA performs contract administration and management, quality assurance, and inspection for the DoD, other federal agencies, foreign governments, international organizations, and others, as authorized. 4344(a)(1); 10 U.S.C. Transfer authority expires September 30, 2016. C1.3.2.4. Also authorizes the Secretary to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, components, and related materials, technology, and expertise, as well as of weapons of mass destruction-related materials. In addition, broader DOD authority might affect requirements for State Department oversight and coordination. FY2016 appropriations legislation (P.L. The Obama Administration's Statement of Administration Policy on S. 2943 noted concern that the security cooperation reform provisions would impinge on the Secretary of State's lead role in security assistance. SA is a group of programs, authorized under Title 22 authorities, by which the United States provides defense articles, military education and training, and other defense-related services by grant, loan, credit, cash sales, or lease, in furtherance of national policies and objectives. CN indicating list of countries eligible for training submitted prior to providing training. Four related statutes authorize DOD to conduct airlift, air transport, and air-refueling activities, or to provide other support. 112-239, Section 1275). 103-337. CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D). The advantages and disadvantages of amalgamating all security cooperation funding in one budget account. Secretary of Defense and Secretary of State to jointly submit assessments on the Government of Iraq's efforts to increase political inclusiveness, the first due 120 days after enactment of FY2016 NDAA and the next 180 days after submission of initial assessment. The FY2016 NDAA authorizes up to $350 million in FY2015 or FY2016 funding for 10 U.S.C. 107-314. 3 (May/June 2010). Department of Defense, National Military Strategy of the United States, 2011, pp. Total amount of support may not exceed $150 million from Coalition Support Funds (CSF) or the Counterterrorism Partnerships Fund (CTPF) for any country in any fiscal year. DSCA directs, administers, and provides guidance to the DoD Components and DoD representatives to U.S. missions, for the execution of DoD SC programs for which DSCA has responsibility. Quarterly reports on equipment disposition submitted no later than 90 days after enactment of NDAA FY2016. Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA). CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D). FY2016 appropriations legislation (P.L. Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF): FY2008 NDAA, P.L. What mechanisms for DOD-State Department coordination are in place at the field level—both at the geographic COCOMs and at U.S. embassies—and how well they function; whether improvements possible at this level might expedite State Department oversight and interagency collaboration; and what kinds of improvements might be instituted by the agencies, and which might require congressional action. Issues for Congress, coordinated by [author name scrubbed]. Activities funded by WIF are conducted using the authority of three statutes (10 U.S.C. "26 This authority requires the Secretary of Defense and Secretary of State to formulate jointly programs to (1) enhance foreign military or other security forces' ability to conduct counterterrorism missions or support ongoing allied or coalition military or stability operations, (2) enhance the capacity of a foreign country's national maritime or border security forces to conduct counterterrorism operations, and (3) enhance the capacity of foreign national-level security forces that have a counterterrorism mission. Section 1203) contains a concurrence requirement, but an expanded 10 U.S.C. In the House version of the FY2017 NDAA (H.R. Other policymakers, however, question whether DOD's growing emphasis on and authority to conduct security cooperation missions undermines the State Department's lead role in assisting foreign security forces and "militarizes" U.S. foreign policy. These include adopting new budgeting procedures that would facilitate better planning, such as developing a unified security cooperation budget, reworking the current institutional structure for decision-making on resource allocation, and passing new DOD authorities to better align them with strategic concepts. Also to accept contributions to the ASFF from non-U.S. government sources, and to transfer ASFF funds to other accounts. (, Challenges and Gaps in the Current Statutory Framework, Overview of DOD Security Cooperation Authorities, Contingency Operations and Related Coalition Operational Support: Afghanistan, Africa, Iraq, Syria, Ukraine, Operational Support, Including Lift and Sustain, and Logistics, Counternarcotics, Counter-Transnational Organized Crime, and Counterproliferation, Reform of Title 10 Security Cooperation Authorities Framework, Alignment of Resources and Strategic Priorities, Security Cooperation Staffing and Training, Appendix. $358.5 million is authorized to be available for obligation in FY2016, FY2017, and FY2018. 101-510, Section 1004, as amended); "1022" Joint Task Forces Support to Law Enforcement Agencies to Counter Transnational Organized Crime and Counter-Terrorism (FY2004 NDAA, P.L. Availability of Funds for Co-Production of Iron Dome Short-Range Rocket Defense System in the United States: FY2014 NDAA, P.L. The FY2017 budget estimate is $9.2 million. Provides authority for DOD to transfer up to $200 million per fiscal year to the fund, but caps DOD contributions to each project at 80% of the cost. Additional information on related security issues is covered by other CRS products: CRS Report R44313, What Is “Building Partner Capacity?” Issues for Congress, coordinated by Kathleen J. McInnis. Authorizes discretionary funding for combatant commanders to conduct various activities, especially in response to unforeseen contingencies. Report no later than 30 days after the last day of a fiscal year during which this authority is exercised. Funding for some security cooperation authorities may also be subsumed under a larger budget category or simply drawn from the defense-wide operations and maintenance budget, making identification of specific funding levels for some authorities difficult. CN submitted no later than 30 days after receiving funding contributions for activities conducted under CTR; CN submitted 15 days prior to obligation of funds received from contributions; annual report on contributions due first Monday in February of a year; implementation plan submitted prior to obligation or expenditure of funds from contributions; summary of amounts requested, obligated or expended by project category to be included in annual report and budget notification materials; annual report on activities and assistance carried out due first Monday in February. SASC, SFRC, HASC, HFAC. In Iraq, the Iraq Train and Equip Fund (ITEF) authorizes up to $715 million in FY2016 for DOD, in coordination with the Secretary of State, to train, equip, and provide additional types of support to military and other security of forces of or associated with the Government of Iraq. The DOD role in U.S. assistance to train, equip, and otherwise support foreign military (and at times other security) forces has evolved over recent decades. However, DOD uses the term security assistance to refer specifically to assistance provided under Title 22 authority, funded with monies appropriated to the State Department and managed by the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA), an agency under the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Policy.3. Beginning in FY2015, funding may not exceed $125 million per fiscal year. 114-92, Section 1251. 2010); Joint Staff-Sponsored Exercise Program (10 U.S.C. Report submitted 15 days before obligation of funds; CN submitted 15 days before use of funds for unspecified purposes; CN submitted 15 days before obligation or expenditure of funds in excess of authorized amount; CN submitted no later than 30 days after Secretary of Defense directs on-site manger to resume U.S. participation in a project; annual certifications on use of facilities being constructed for CTR projects due first Monday in February of a year. Congress has enacted several statutes whose primary purposes are to authorize DOD efforts to establish and strengthen professional and personal relationships among allied and friendly country personnel and to encourage a democratic orientation of defense institutions and militaries of other countries. CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D). In some cases, DOD has arranged some programs to be sustained through the State Department Foreign Military Financing (FMF) account.45. The DoS prepares the Mission Strategic Resource Plan (MSRP) and reviews and submits to Congress the Congressional Budget Justification (CBJ), which includes an annual estimate of the total amount of sales and licensed commercial exports expected to be made to each foreign nation as required by AECA 25(a)(2) (22 U.S.C. May 8, 2019 — Objective. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to enter into bilateral or multilateral agreements, called Support Partnership Agreements, with one or more of other member countries of NATO participating in the operation of the NATO Support Organization. USD(C) establishes policies and procedures for SC activities involving financial management, fiscal matters, accounting, pricing, budgeting for reimbursements to DoD appropriation accounts and revolving funds, international payments, and matters affecting the DoD budget. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to present awards and mementos purchased with funds appropriated for the operation and maintenance of U.S. armed forces to members of friendly foreign forces and other foreign nationals who significantly enhance or support the National Security Strategy of the United States. 2011. SASC, HASC, SFRC, HFAC, SAC, HAC. For FY2016, Congress has authorized $359 million funds to be available in FY2016, FY2017, and FY2018. DOD Participation in European Program on Multilateral Exchange of Air Transportation and Air Refueling Services (ATARES Program): FY2013 NDAA, P.L. In coordination with the USD(P), the MILDEPs develop campaign support plans, as appropriate, serve as IAs to conduct SC programs and activities, and complete campaign support plan assessments contributing to CCMD campaign plans, as appropriate. CN submitted 15 days in advance of reimbursement or other support. SC comprises all activities undertaken by the Department of Defense (DoD) to encourage and enable international partners to work with the United States to achieve strategic objectives. 114-113) makes $50 million available for additional costs associated with existing projects. Authorizes DOD-funded assistance in the form of defense articles and services to U.S. and foreign counter-drug and counter- transnational organized crime law enforcement agencies. Unreimbursed support for any officer may not exceed $200,000 (in FY2014 constant dollars). Report on transportation of relief to unauthorized countries submitted 15 days in advance. Quarterly progress report submitted no later than 90 days after initial report and every 90 days thereafter. What evaluation and assessment tools are currently used to measure and compare outcomes of security assistance and cooperation programs. Under Secretary of Defense, Personnel and Readiness (USD(P&R)). Inter-European Air Forces Academy: FY2015 NDAA, P.L. 6957(a)(1); 10 U.S.C. 110-161). An ongoing problem with DOD security cooperation programs is the need for sustainment, which many DOD authorities do not provide. The aggregate amount of reimbursements may not exceed $1.2 billion during FY2016. 114-113, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016, Division K, Department of State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2016. MODA's FY2017 budget estimate is $9.2 million. 1051b. Center for Complex Operations, 10 U.S.C. For Humanitarian and Civic Assistance, Chief of Mission coordination is required "to the extent practicable.". As DOD's security cooperation responsibilities and authorities have multiplied, general agreement has emerged that the statutory framework has evolved into a cumbersome system.17 In particular, the statutory framework is seen to be difficult to navigate, and that it sometimes hampers the timely development and implementation of DOD security cooperation programs. See DoD Directive 5105.65. 15-16. Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the White House identified instability in foreign countries as growing threat to U.S. interests and articulated a growing role for the U.S. military in enhancing the ability of foreign forces to control their territories as vital to achieving national security objectives. Cooperative Military Airlift Agreements: Allied Countries: 10 U.S.C. CCIF authorizes activities that fall under many of the categories used in this report to organize DOD security cooperation authorities. 110-181, Section 1513, as amended. Other DoD regulations and manuals that cover specific program details relating to SC are referenced throughout this Manual. Whether additional resources would enable the State Department to have a more effective role in overseeing and collaborating in DOD security cooperation activities and applying a "whole of government" approach suggested by DOD. Another authority authorizes the appropriation of no more than $15 million for nonrecurring engineering costs associated with the establishment of co-production capacity in the United States for Israel's Iron Dome rocket defense program. 2011 statute, which would replace and repeal it, does not. CN 15 days prior to exercising authority. Thus, we have designed a home security alarm system using Arduino and PIR motion sensor, which is handy, portable, cost-effective and highly effective as well. Only "Section 1033" requires some level of State Department input. SASC, SFRC, SSCI, SCHS, SAC, HASC, HFAC, HPSCI, HCHS, HAC. Only MODA requires State Department input. SFRC, HFAC, CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D). 2011); Imagery Intelligence and Geospatial Information: Support for Foreign Countries, Regional Organizations, and Security Alliances: (10 U.S.C. The Competition Cooperation Project supports dialogues between competition officials from the EU and Asia through Competition Weeks, Competition Summer School and the Visitors Programme. 2282), as "a means to fill long-standing gaps in an effort to help other nations build and sustain capable military forces. Secretary of State in the lead on this authority, with Secretary of Defense concurrence required for some programs and consultation for others. Congress. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to provide assistance, including equipment, supplies, training, stipends, construction of training and associated facilities, and sustainment to appropriately vetted elements of the Syrian opposition and other appropriated vetted Syrian groups and individuals. 102-190. Authorizes the use of funds appropriated to the Department of Defense for providing transportation of humanitarian relief and for other humanitarian purposes worldwide. In response to the conflict in Syria, Congress has authorized DOD to pursue a wide range of security cooperation activities. 407); Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance (CFE-DMHA) (10 U.S.C. 99-570).]. Foreign Cryptologic Support: 10 U.S.C. 2111b. Some of DOD's earliest Title 10 authorities, dating to the 1980s, involve disaster relief and humanitarian and civil assistance. See RAND, From Patchwork to Framework: A Review of Title 10 Authorities for Security Cooperation, 2016. 108-136, Section 1022, as amended); "1021" Unified Counter-Drug and Counterterrorism Campaign in Colombia (FY2005 NDAA, P.L. CN submitted 15 days prior to providing assistance. The Ministry further said that the three countries exchanged views on common security threats and agreed to broad base cooperation by expanding the scope to … Up to $5 million per year for force training, contingencies, selected operations, command and control, joint exercises, military education and training for military and related civilian personnel of foreign countries, including transportation, translation, and administrative expenses. See DoD Directive 5134.01. Additional authorities permit reciprocal or nonreciprocal exchanges of U.S. and foreign defense personnel. It presents background information on the evolving DOD security cooperation mission and the recent development of the statutory framework through which DOD conducts security cooperation activities. Executive Orders for Security Assistance. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to increase maritime security and maritime domain awareness of specific foreign countries along the South China Sea by providing assistance and training to national military or other security forces whose functional responsibilities include maritime security missions. Subsequently, Congress provided DOD with two major authorities to conduct counternarcotics, counter-transnational organized crime, and related counterterrorism security cooperation activities: "Section 1004" adopted in the FY1991 NDAA and "Section 1033" in the FY1998 NDAA. Notes: Table A-1 abbreviations for committees are as follows: Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC); House Armed Services Committee (HASC); Senate Foreign Relations Committee (SFRC); Senate Committee on Homeland Security (SCHS); House Committee on Homeland Security (HCHS); Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI); House Foreign Affairs Committee (HFAC); Senate Appropriations Committee (SAC); House Appropriations Committee (HAC); and House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI). 401 report (discussed above). Chief of Mission approval is required. Other concerns are that requirements for Secretary of State concurrence have been removed in some instances where they existed before. Report due no later than October 30 following the fiscal year in which equipment was loaned. Two key foundations underpin EU cooperation on … security cooperation synonyms, security cooperation pronunciation, security cooperation translation, English dictionary definition of security cooperation. law vesting the Secretary of State with responsibility to exercise "continuous supervision and general direction" of military assistance, including military education and training, many security cooperation statutes require Secretary of State "concurrence" (i.e., approval) or other State Department input.24. 113-291, Section 1207). Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense shall jointly develop infrastructure projects in Afghanistan to be implemented by the Secretary of State except Secretary of Defense if jointly determined. Implementing Agencies may supplement this Manual with internal regulations or policy guidance covering details unique to their organizations. No more than $900 million of the aggregate amount of reimbursements may be used for Pakistan in FY2016. 112-239, Section 1275. Report due no later than 30 days after obligations or expenditures of funds. Authorization or appropriations legislation does not specify funding levels for the following authorities: Assist in Accounting for Missing USG Personnel (10 U.S.C. CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D), SFRC, HFAC. 113-66, Section 1208. 106-65. Authorizes U.S. general purpose military forces to train with the military forces or other security forces of a friendly foreign country and DOD to pay up to $10 million per fiscal year in incremental expenses incurred by participating foreign forces. 2282 and 2249c, which they argue largely duplicate State Department authorized and funded Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International Military Education and Training (IMET), respectively. SASC and HASC. creating a "Department of Defense Security Cooperation Workforce Development Program" to oversee the development and management of a professional workforce supporting DOD security cooperation programs and activities. Definition and Purpose. The results of the PPD-23 process to date, which called for the Administration to develop one or more standardized, interagency tools to assess security assistance and cooperation outcomes. Global Operational Support, including Lift and Sustain, and Logistics. Following the September 11th attacks, U.S. government periodic planning documents indicated that the changing security environment presented a new set of challenges.7 Instead of combating nation-states, the U.S. military would increasingly face networks of non-state actors in areas where the United States was not necessarily conducting combat operations. To achieve success in these areas, successive Administrations judged that countering decentralized networks of violent extremists would require long, complex operations involving the U.S. military, other government agencies, and international partners.8 Accordingly, many in DOD and elsewhere maintained that the U.S. military needed to adopt an indirect approach that increased partner capacity (better known by the term "building partner capacity," or BPC) for a variety of purposes, to include: the more effective prosecution of counterterrorism operations, increasing the capacity of states to manage their own regional security challenges in order to prevent an eventual U.S. or international crisis intervention, and as an exit strategy for post-9/11 military campaigns.9 To implement such concepts, DOD requested that Congress grant new authorities to build the capabilities of partner nations and enhance interoperability with U.S. forces, some of which Congress granted.Â, As Congress provided DOD with more authority to address such emerging challenges, however, DOD identified statutory and institutional challenges in the development and implementation of programs authorized by the growing number of security cooperation authorities. It also reviews EDA allocations, materiel surveys, and international agreements. In Afghanistan, the major authority is the Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF), which permits DOD to train, equip, and provide other supplies and services to Afghan military and police forces with the Secretary of State's concurrence. Report assessing previous programs due no later than 180 days after enactment. Assignment of more than two members of the U.S. Armed Forces requires Secretary of Defense report and certification and assignment of more than 10 members requires Secretary of Defense notice. COLOMBO (News 1st): The 4th National Security Adviser (NSA) Level Trilateral Meeting on Maritime Security Cooperation between India, the Maldives, and Sri - … The USD(P) serves as the principal staff assistant and advisor to the Secretary of Defense on SC matters. FY2016 appropriations legislation (P.L. (For more on FMF and IMET, CRS Report R44444, Security Assistance and Cooperation: Shared Responsibility of the Departments of State and Defense, by [author name scrubbed].) In particular, some question whether such activities can effectively create capable and reliable "partners" who can act together with or instead of U.S. troops. The Director may use funds other than those appropriated to provide foreign countries with imagery intelligence and geospatial information support under certain conditions. DOD is permitted, in coordination with the Secretary of State, to assist vetted elements of the Syrian opposition with training, equipment, sustainment, and other support. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to provide equipment supplies, services, and training to any foreign nation assisting Department of Defense with recovery of and accounting for missing U.S. government personnel. Annual report no later than October 30. Over the past decade, Congress has authorized the Department of Defense (DOD) to conduct a wide range of security cooperation programs. 2151 et. 1051, and 10 U.S.C. DOD counterdrug authorities were among the first Title 10 security cooperation authorities. Security Cooperation: Provisions in the FY2017 NDAA Congressional Research Service Summary During the lame duck session, the 114th Congress is expected to consider various provisions in the annual defense authorization bill that address U.S. security sector cooperation. Military-to-Military Contacts and Related: 10 U.S.C. Original legislation: FY1983 NDAA, P.L. Tuition Waiver for Department of Defense Regional Centers: FY2009 NDAA, P.L. Authorizes the use of DOD funds (up to $450 million) to provide supplies, services, transportation, and other logistical support to coalition partners supporting U.S. military and stabilization operations in Afghanistan and Iraq to be provided in accordance with the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) and other U.S. export laws. C1.2.2. Some of the authorities, including "Section 1033," are limited to specific geographic regions. DOD stated that one of its priorities for the 21st century is establishing innovative partnerships and enhancing key alliances and partnerships. The scope of the initial meeting will be to determine if the Purchaser has met the ... DSCA I-98-079527... and was forwarded to DSCA on [date]. [The first version of 10 U.S.C. For FY2017, the DOD budget estimate for this account is $105.1 million. 108-375, Section 1021, as amended). They modify Global Force Management Board processes and procedures to account for force requirements for SC. See Chapter 15 for more detailed information on individual programs. Original legislation FY2008 NDAA, P.L. "1234" Logistical Support for Coalition Forces Supporting Operations in Afghanistan and Iraq: FY2008 NDAA, P.L. Other statutes fund the participation of U.S. and foreign personnel at specific venues, including Headquarters Eurocorps, the U.S. Center for Complex Operations located at the National Defense University, and multilateral military Centers of Excellence. "1022" Joint Task Forces Support to Law Enforcement Agencies to Counter Transnational Organized Crime and Counter-Terrorism: FY2004 NDAA, P.L. "DDAA" in the entry on 10 U.S.C. Authorizes the secretary of a military department, under Secretary of Defense regulations, to carry out humanitarian demining assistance and stockpiled conventional munitions assistance to promote both the security interests of the U.S. and the recipient country, and the operational readiness skills of participating military personnel. Defense Institution Reform Initiative: 10 U.S.C. Section 1201 authorizes U.S. military commanders in Afghanistan to carry out small-scale projects to address urgent humanitarian relief or urgent reconstruction needs within their areas of responsibility. Revised guidance submitted Report estimating types and quantities of available equipment submitted 15 days before exercise of authority. The statute itself authorizes the fund, but activities are carried out under other authorities. The Initiative permits an increased U.S. military presence in Europe, additional exercises and training with allies and partners, improvements to infrastructure to enhance responsiveness, prepositioning U.S. equipment in Europe, and increasing efforts to build partner capacity for newer NATO members and other partners. SA authorizations and appropriations are provided primarily under three public laws: The Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) of 1961, as amended, The Arms Export Control Act (AECA) of 1976, as amended, Annual appropriations acts for Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs. While the Obama Administration, in its Statement of Administration Policy responding to S. 2943, expressed its eagerness to work with Congress to undertake DOD security cooperation reforms, it cautioned that the legislation went "beyond the Administration's request with potentially broad ramifications that need to be analyzed carefully. They assist the USD(AT&L) and the Director, DSCA, as requested, in government-to-government or interdepartmental discussions or negotiations involving SC. Congress has provided DOD with about a dozen authorities to support the participation of U.S. and foreign military personnel in a variety of educational and personnel exchange activities. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to allow the participation of U.S. military personnel as staff members of the NATO Rapid Deployable Corps Eurocorps headquarters. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to provide training, equipment, and supplies to military and civilian first responder organizations of countries that border Syria to enhance their capabilities to respond effectively to potential incidents involving weapons of mass destruction; DOD may provide such assistance to other countries after providing written notification, using funds available to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. requiring assessment, monitoring, and evaluation of DOD security cooperation programs and activities, and annual consolidated reporting on security cooperation programs, activities, and performance; consolidating responsibility for the oversight of strategic guidance and for overall resource allocation for DOD security cooperation programs and activities to a single Office of the Secretary of Defense office at a Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense level or below; integrating security cooperation funding streams into one Security Cooperation Enhancement Fund (SCEF), and requiring an annual consolidated DOD security cooperation budget; requiring the Secretaries of Defense and State to jointly issue regulations to facilitate and streamline coordination between their departments on all matters relating to the policy, planning, and implementation of security cooperation and assistance programs and activities; and. Report due no later than 60 days before the expiration date of an agreement. Showing page 1. "1021" Unified Counter-Drug and Counterterrorism Campaign in Colombia: FY2005 NDAA, P.L. The number of authorities identified by CRS is derived from the DOD security cooperation programs catalogued in the current DISAM Security Cooperation Programs handbook. One requires Secretary of State concurrence and authorizes DOD to transfer U.S. non-excess defense articles and related services up to $250 million in replacement value to Afghanistan's military and security forces. Original legislation: FY2006 NDAA, P.L. Original legislation: FY2007 NDAA, P.L. 409); African Cooperation: Payment of Personnel Expenses (10 U.S.C. Congress determines which activities and operations will be conducted, and it provides input on the selection of recipient countries, organizations, and groups. Original legislation regarding current Secretary of State role, FY1989 NDAA, P.L. (JCETs generally occur within the context of military exercises.). 127d, known as the "Global Lift and Sustain" authority. Legislative Authorities for Security Cooperation (SC). Issues for Congress, The Lord's Resistance Army: The U.S. The United States began providing substantial military and other security force aid during the early years after World War II. All require some State Department role. According to some research, there are examples of effective DOD and State Department collaboration. Additionally, Congress has also authorized the DOD Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program. 2282 and 2249c, which they argue largely duplicate State Department authorized and funded Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International Military Education and Training (IMET), respectively. Funds made available for counter-drug activities made available to a joint task force to support counter-drug activities may also be used for counterterrorism and counter-transnational organized crime support, during fiscal years 2006 through 2020. SASC, SFRC, HASC, HFAC. All three above to CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D). Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to loan, under an ACSA (10 U.S.C. RAND has also proposed the adoption of a cooperative ballistic missile defense (BMD) authority to allow more effective information sharing between combatant commanders and foreign partners, in addition to training and exercises on BMD systems. OHDACA supports 10 U.S.C. In a fiscal environment calling for increased austerity, DOD concluded that employing partnerships and innovative approaches, such as security cooperation activities, would continue to be an integral part of maintaining U.S. global leadership.15, Since the last QDR, challenges that have arisen from Russia and China are shifting attention toward building partner capacity to meet threats in addition to counterterrorism. Three of the Senate proposals would constitute major expansions of DOD's ability to equip, train, and provide educational and schoolhouse training to foreign forces under Title 10 authority.36 One would expand an existing train and equip authority (10 U.S.C. Arrangement or agreement expires five years after the date on which Secretary of Defense first enters into the arrangement or agreement, as described in the legislation. Annual report due October 31. 1050. 9344(a)(1). Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to operate a Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance. 2249c. CN 15 days prior to transfer of funds to carry out ERI programs under specified authorities or any other authority available to the Secretary of Defense or Secretary of State. Congress has provided DOD with several global authorities to support the participation of other countries in coalition military activities or foreign military activities that respond to mutual interests. Security cooperation has been an important part of this wider phenomenon. Annual report to Congress due March 15 of each year. Response, Security Assistance Reform: "Section 1206" Background and Issues for Congress, International Crises and Disasters: U.S. Humanitarian Assistance Response Mechanisms. Original Legislation: FY2009 NDAA, P.L. These authorities and programs are discussed in detail in Chapter 15. Current Proposed Legislation to Reform Security Cooperation Authorities. SASC, SFRC, HASC, HFAC. Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA): 10 U.S.C. The security cooperation reform proposals currently before Congress, with their focus on changes in the DOD legislative framework and a limited number of DOD institutional and DOD-State Department collaboration arrangements, reflect, to some analysts, part of a larger debate. U.S. military efforts to train, equip, transport, and sustain Georgian military forces to assist the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan required multiple authorities and funding streams from FY2010 through FY2012 (during which $46.2 million was spent), which led to unanticipated problems and delays throughout the multiyear process. CN submitted when foreign gifts or donations to the Institute exceed $1 million in any fiscal year. The DoC is the lead organization for the USG’s Defense Advocacy Program, a means by which U.S. Defense industry can submit requests for the USG’s support when competing in foreign markets. DOD's decision to make building partner capacity a key component of U.S. defense policy necessitated the expanded use of general purpose forces (GPF) to do so. Assistance to the Governments of Jordan and Lebanon for Border Security Operations, FY2016 NDAA, P.L. All to SASC, SFRC, SAC, SSCI, HASC, HFAC, HAC, HPSCI. The Joint Chiefs of Staff provide implementation guidance for U.S. military plans and programs and provide the Secretary of Defense with military advice concerning SC; review, in conjunction with the USD(P), CCMD campaign plans (including SC aspects) and oversee deconfliction of the campaign plans as necessary; and collect and review the campaign plan assessments completed by the CCDRs through the Comprehensive Joint Assessment and advise the USD(P) on the effectiveness of DoD SC efforts. The mission In response, Congress provided DOD with new authority to combat instability by building partner capacity. 127d. 114-113) makes no more than $50 million available for additional costs associated with existing projects funded under AIF. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to provide up to $300 million in FY2016 for security assistance and intelligence support, including training equipment, as well as logistics support, supplies and services to military and other security forces of Ukraine. Congress has also authorized DOD, with Secretary of State concurrence, to reimburse the armed forces of Jordan and Lebanon up to $150 million for increasing and maintaining security along their borders with Syria. Logistic Support for Allied Forces in Combined Operations: 10 U.S.C. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to enter into international defense personnel exchange agreements with the government of a U.S. ally or another friendly foreign country. Three are logistics support authorities, one of which requires Secretary of State concurrence, and two of which do not require State Department input. 110-417. SASC, SFRC, HASC, HFAC. United States Participation in Headquarters Eurocorps: FY2013 NDAA, P.L. The term sustainment generally refers to sustainment of equipment. RAND, Review of Security Cooperation Mechanisms Combatant Command Utilize to Build Partner Capacity, p. 27. A new authority, adopted in the FY2016 NDAA, permits DOD to provide training, equipment, and logistical support to Ukraine's military and security forces, in coordination with the Secretary of State. DIRI's FY2017 budget estimate is $25.6 million. Distinguishing Between Security Cooperation and Security Assistance Programs. 166a. Attendance at Military Academies: 10 U.S.C. The White House, "Fact Sheet: U.S. Security Sector Assistance Policy," April 5, 2013. Title 10 chapter, under the same categories as the House. (The Global Security Contingency Fund was designed to replace the current agency-centric security assistance system with one that would facilitate interagency planning, budgeting, and coordination and eliminate duplication.). Whether current strategic assumptions take into account the extent to which security cooperation programs are consistent with U.S. interests, especially in weak states. 108-136. In addition, the NMS called for the adoption of authorities that would allow for a "pooled-resources approach" and encourage "complementary efforts across departments and programs, integrating defense, diplomacy, development, law enforcement, and intelligence capacity-building activities." Authorizes the secretary of a military department, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, to carry out specified types of humanitarian and civic assistance activities in conjunction with authorized military operations. Authorizes the attendance of international students at U.S. military academies. Defense Institution Reform Initiative (DIRI): 10 U.S.C. Annual report due March 31. CN submitted 15 days prior to obligating or expending funds. CN submitted no later than 15 days before a training event begins. 9344(a)(1)); Attendance at the Naval Post-Graduate School (10 U.S.C. The total amount of funds spent under this authority may not exceed $35 million. 2011 statute, which would replace and repeal it, does not. Regional Centers for Security Studies (RCSS): 10 U.S.C. ed. Department of Defense, National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism, 2006, p. 13. Authority to Conduct Activities to Enhance the Capabilities of Foreign Countries to Respond to Incidents Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction: FY2014 NDAA, P.L. They maintain appropriate records and furnish prescribed reports as requested. Building Capacity of Foreign Security Forces, 10 U.S.C. 109-364. 104-201, Section 1082); Presentation of Awards and Mementos to Foreign Personnel (10 U.S.C. 401. 2166. Logistics Support to Foreign Forces Training with U.S. Armed Forces: FY2015 NDAA, P.L. Training of Security Forces and Associated Security Ministries of Foreign Countries to Promote Respect for the Rule of Law and Human Rights: FY2015 NDAA, P.L. Although in some cases DOD conducts entire programs under one authority, in many others DOD must draw on multiple authorities to conduct a single program. Nevertheless, some argue that the patchwork of targeted DOD authorities is an intentional and inevitable response to specific situations where close congressional oversight is desirable. Any broadening of DOD authority may have possible implications for future DOD budgets and congressional oversight. The United States began providing substantial military and other security force aid during the early years after World War II. The sections below present an overview of the statute-related issues that might involve congressional action. 1050 for Latin America; 1050a for Africa; 1051 for multilateral, bilateral, or regional cooperation programs; and 1051a for liaison officers) into a single authority for "Payment of Personnel Expenses Necessary for Theater Security Cooperation." CN due 15 days prior to providing support. Senior Military College International Student Program: 10 U.S.C. Report on equipment transfers to Afghan security forces submitted no later than 60 days after enactment of FY2014 NDAA and then no later than 30 days after first two quarters of FY2014 and each fiscal half-year thereafter. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to enter into agreements with NATO, a NATO organization, a NATO member, a major non-NATO ally, or any other friendly foreign country to conduct cooperative research and development projects on defense equipment and munitions. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to pay the travel, subsistence, and similar expenses of defense personnel of developing countries to attend multilateral, bilateral, or regional conferences, seminars, or similar meetings if the Secretary of Defense deems the attendance of such personnel in the national security interests of the United States. India, Sri Lanka and Maldives on Saturday reviewed the current maritime security environment in the region, exchanged views on common security threats and agreed to expand the scope of cooperation to include issues such intelligence sharing … seq.). 112-81, Section 1201, as amended. We determined whether the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA)—Security Assistance Accounts (SAA) September 30, 2017, balance sheet was accurate and whether the DSCA and Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) implemented effective controls over financial reporting for the SAAs. C1.3.2.3. Congress has provided DOD with, by CRS’s estimate, more than 80 separate authorities to assist foreign governments, militaries, and populations. Consolidation might also result in more holistic reporting to Congress. Authorization or appropriations legislation does not specify funding levels for the following authorities: Humanitarian Aid: 10 U.S.C. Some authorize tuition waivers or payment of expenses incurred by foreign military personnel participating in education and exchange activities. Secretary of State approval required for the conduct of an activity in a foreign country. 1051. DFAS performs accounting, billing, disbursing, and collecting functions for SC programs. 402); Humanitarian Assistance: (10 U.S.C. The other is a logistics support statute that authorizes up to $450 million for DOD to aid coalition partners supporting U.S. military and stabilization operations in Afghanistan. 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Shall submit scopec security cooperation report to Congress terrorist organizations cryptologic support ( 10 U.S.C regional cooperation programs referenced.
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